Conclusion & Bibliography


Throughout the immigration experience, Vietnamese refugees relied heavily on personal relationships with U.S. citizens, charities, and family members already in the U.S. Once in Alexandria, they selectively adapted to American culture and ways of life while maintaining ties to their Vietnamese heritage. While they experienced hardships and had to overcome many obstacles, these migrants also experienced some success in Alexandria and America at large.



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Bong-Wright, Jackie. About Jackie: Autumn Cloud’s Summary. Accessed November 3, 2015.

D.C. Church Blog. The Church in D.C.: Vietnamese Churches in DC, MD, VA. Accessed December 7, 2015.

Friedman, Andrew. Covert Capital: Landscapes of Denial and the Making of U.S. Empire in the Suburbs of Northern Virginia. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2013.

Holy Martyrs of Vietnam Catholic Parish. Accessed December 7, 2015.

Horwitt, Joan. “VIRGINIA DINING: Ambrosia Cafe,” The Washington Post, May 18, 1989, sec. VIRGINIA.

Johnson, Janice. “Virginia Officials Worry Over Rise in Refugee Health Costs.” The Washington Post, July 10, 1980.

Kibria, Nazli. Family Tightrope: The Changing Lives of Vietnamese Americans. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Lazo, Luz. “In Northern Virginia, A Leader Among Vietnamese Immigrants.” The Washington Post, July 9, 2012.

Meyers, Jessica. “Pho and Apple Pie: Eden Center as a Representation of Vietnamese American Ethnic
Identity in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area, 1975-2005.” Journal of Asian American Studies 9, no. 1 (2006): 55-85.

Phan, Peter. “Vietnamese Catholics in the United States: Christian Identity between the Old and the New.” U.S. Catholic Historian 18, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 19-35.

Renaissance Gospel Batist Church. Hoi Thanh Tin Lanh Bap Tit Phuc Hung. Accessed December 7, 2015.

Richman, C. Phyllis. “East Wind,” The Washington Post, April 19, 1981, sec. Magazine.

Tousignant, Marylou.“A Family Succeeds by Degrees; All Six Children of Vietnamese Immigrants Graduate From U-Va,” The Washington Post, May 17, 1996, A01.

Wood, Joeseph. “Vietnamese American Place Making in Northern Virginia” Geographical Review 87, no. 1(January 1997), 58-72.