The residents of the Italian peninsula have been among the most migratory peoples on the earth.[i] According to Donna R. Gabaccia’s, Italy’s Many Diasporas, 16.6 million peoples departed Italy from 1871 to 1921.[ii] This departure was part of a much larger global population shift tied to industrialization and transportation improvements. The majority of Italians came to the United States to fill the jobs in factories, mines, and railroad industries.[iii]
Arriving in the United States in 1908, Anthony Ciuffreda was part of this large immigration trend. According to the New York passenger manifest, Anthony departed from Napoli (Naples) on the passenger ship S.S. Conte Rosso and arrived in New York City a few weeks later.[iv] Previously residing in Monte San Angelo, Anthony settled in Alexandria, Virginia. Anthony married Helen Orndorff, an eighteen year old from Colorado, on March 20, 1918 in Washington D.C.[v] In December 1925, Anthony petitioned and became a naturalized citizen.[vi] The 1940 U.S. Census shows that once settled in Alexandria, Anthony became the proprietor of a garage, and owned property worth $8,400.[vii]
Once arriving in the U.S., Anthony immediately attempted to immerse himself in the experience, getting married, applying for naturalization, and becoming the proprietor of a business.
With the outbreak of World War I, Anthony registered himself for the draft. However, it is interesting that Anthony did not register for the draft until June 5th, 1918.[viii] According to the national archives military records, the U.S. government did not apply a draft for the third registration, which was held on September 12, 1918, for men age 18 through 45 until much later in the war. This registration would have included Anthony.[ix]
[i] Donna R. Gabaccia, Italy’s Many Diasporas. (Seattle: U of Washington, 2000.), 1.
[ii] Ibid., 58.
[iii] Ibid., 59.
[iv] New York Passenger List, 1820-1957, accessed October 10, 2016, http://www.ancestry.com.
[v] Select Marriages, 1830-1921, accessed October 10, 2016, http://www.ancestry.com.
[vi] U.S., Naturalization Records, 1840-1957, accessed October 11, 2016, http://www.ancestry.com.
[vii] 1940 United States Federal Census, accessed October 7, 2016, http://www.ancestry.com.
[viii] U.S. World War One Draft registration cards, 1917-1918, accessed October 10, 2016, http://www.ancestry.com.
[ix] “World War I Draft Registration Cards”, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, accessed October 14th, 2016, https://www.archives.gov/research/military/ww1/draft-registration.